This research may help understand how the workings of the Panama Canal are impacted by deforestation and erosion, and what vegetation may be most helpful in controlling erosion. Now we can be smart about which trees we plant at a given site, and we understand much more about what motivates land owners and rural farmers to put this know-how to work.
The buildings of the Byzantine city are easy to list but often quite difficult to find. Of hundreds of churches, only thirty or so have survived through conversion into mosques: From time to time archaeological digs make sensational discoveries, but opportunities are rare.
The sorry fate of Byzantine Constantinople is not unique, and for the determined optimist there is the consolation that the modern city has preserved at least enough to reveal the outline of the development of the medieval city. The Byzantine buildings which do survive in Istanbul fall into two broad categories.
Firstly, there are the great buildings of the early Middle Ages relating to the basic functions of city Relocating orlandos natives essay To symbolise their city, the Byzantines themselves chose two structures, which are still among the most prominent landmarks of Istanbul: Both appear in the ninth or tenth-century mosaic in the vestibule of Hagia Sophia which depicts the dedication of the city to the Wisdom of God': Jahrhundert', Fontes Minores 7pp.
Spatharakis, The Portrait in By. Zantine Illuminated Manuscripts Leidenpp. I Medieval Constantinople 8 gate, all surrounded by water. Besides these structures and various other buildings of much the same date the scanty remains of the Hippodrome and Great Palace, the covered and open air water cisterns, the churches of Relocating orlandos natives essay, St Polyeuktos, Hagia Eirene and SS Sergios and Bacchosthere are a dozen fairly modest former monastic churches, from the ninth to the fourteenth centuries, which survive in the northern and western sections of the area intra muros.
As we shall see, these churches are fairly representative of the city's development from the ninth century onwards. In the course of this urban development it is possible to see a slow shift in the city's centre of gravity towards the north-west.
Overall, these chance survivals do seem to give a fairly accurate impression of the Byzantine city. The Ottoman city also reproduced many of the features of its predecessor, either through direct borrowings or via an Islamic urban model, which, like the Byzantine version, had its roots in the Greco-Roman civilisation of the Near East.
It is also worth remembering that Hagia Sophia itself was used as a model for the great Ottoman mosques. Nevertheless, appearances can be deceptive and it is easy to be taken in by facile orientalism. What is missing today Spatharakis, p. The spacing of the towers suggests that the viewer is meant to imagine the existence of a twelfth, concealed by the dome of the church.
Frugoni, A Distant City: Loti, Les desenchantees Parisp. The comparison between Byzantine churches and Ottoman mosques was made, with reference to Loti, by Abbe Marin in his Les moines de Constantinople depuis la fondation de la ville jusqu'd la mort de Photius Parisp.
This author exemplifies a way of thinking which was no doubt shared by other contemporaries and is, perhaps, still influential today. I Medieval Constantinople 9 is the Roman stamp that marked Constantinople from the beginning. Roman influence was present not only in the solid mass of brick and marble masonry, the triumphal columns and arches, the clusters of bronze statues, and the forums and porticoes emboloz ,' but also in the great public churches, built between the fourth and sixth centuries, which must, despite restorations, have retained much of their original appearance.
Their central features, striking in the middle ages but imperceptible today, were their basilican plan - the norm in the early period, as the Byzantines of the tenth century were well aware' - and the profusion of annexes, the atria, colonnades and propylaea which surrounded the sites of Christian worship and linked them harmoniously with the porticoes of the streets and squares.
In the eyes of the average or educated Byzantine of the ninth century, the triumphal columns and the churches of the martyrs were both equally part of a common antiquity dating back to Constantine. We will come back to this, but for the moment I want to bear in mind that our Byzantine in the street would not have been aware of any break in, or realignment of, the urban environment around him.
It could be said that the New Rome, like Old Rome, became medieval while remaining essentially Roman. ZantineArchitecture New Yorkp. Les sanctuaires et l'organisation de la vie religieuse'.
I 10 Medieval Constantinople reasonably at home visiting the New Jerusalem on the Bosphoros; certainly travellers' accounts give the impression that it was not the physical appearance of the city itself which disgusted them.
Each of the two Romes featured in the medieval imagination as Holy Cities, rich in marvels, but inhabited by people who were wholly unworthy. The physical remains can only contribute to our understanding of the city's development as points of reference for a picture of the city that has to drawn from written sources.
Very few texts are concerned with topographical detail, and even fewer give an overview of the city as a whole. Only two groups of sources give fairly systematic information about routes and locations. Firstly, there is a series of tenth-century dossiers or official Byzantine collections, which will be discussed below; secondly, there are the accounts of foreign visitors: Travel in the By.
For medieval Rome, see R. Krautheimer, Rome, Profile of a City, Princeton Note that Liudprand of Cremona lumped together Greeks 11 and Romans: English translation by A. Haroun-ibn-Yahya', Revue des Etudes islamiquesStruggle for Preserverance: The Relocation of Native Americans This paper is a history of how the white man, slowly but surely, drove the Native Americans out of their own land, and tried to "Americanize" them.
Herewith a delightful What It’s Like Living Here piece from Lisa Roney in Orlando. This is our second contribution from Florida in recent weeks, a sign that all the writers are moving there (well, maybe not).
Lisa Roney teaches writing at the University of Central Florida. Relocating Orlando's Natives - Undeniably there are thousands of people who live in Orlando, Florida but there is not an abundance of people who were born here (such as me); some have moved here for various reasons: because of the weather and great opportunities that we offer.
roof beam fractured, threatening the collapse of the main hall, and the nuns petitioned the emperor as he was on his weekly procession to the Blachernae; (3) he turned aside (txvEG6ac) to inspect the damage and, impressed by the building, restored and endowed it as a hospital after relocating the nuns.
Over the past decade, American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIANs) population increased by %.1 According to census, there are approximately million AIANs living in the United States representing % of the U.S. population.2 By , the projected population of AIANs will reach an estimated million.2 Alaska Natives (AN) .
Citrus County Sheriffs OfficeBurglaries A vehicle burglary was reported at a.m. Monday, Dec. 2, in the block of E. Ray St., Hernando. A residential burglary was reported at a.m. Dec. 2 in the block of S. Yew Terrace, Floral City.