Prevention[ edit ] Due to the severe morbidity and mortality associated with the TURP syndrome, precautions must be taken to reduce the risk of this developing in so far as possible. Surgical experience is therefore paramount in order to minimize the time of surgery. Prostate size[ edit ] Large prostates should be resected in staged procedures to avoid prolonged operative times, and care should be taken to avoid damage to the prostate capsule. Irrigating fluid bag height[ edit ] The height of the irrigating fluid above the patient should not be excessive.
Drip irrigation Micro-sprinkler Drip or micro irrigation, also known as trickle irrigation, functions as its name suggests. In this system water falls drop by drop just at the position of roots. Water is delivered at or near the root zone of plants, drop by drop.
This method can be the most water-efficient method of irrigation,  if managed properly, evaporation and runoff are minimized. The field water efficiency of drip irrigation is typically in the range of 80 to 90 percent when managed correctly.
In modern agriculture, drip irrigation is often combined with plastic mulchfurther reducing evaporation, and is also the means of delivery of fertilizer. The process is known as fertigation.
Deep percolation, where water moves below the root zone, can occur if a drip system is operated for too long or if the delivery rate is too high. Drip irrigation methods range from very high-tech and computerized to low-tech and labor-intensive.
Lower water pressures are usually needed than for most other types of systems, with the exception of low energy center pivot systems and surface irrigation systems, and the system can be designed for uniformity throughout a field or for precise water delivery to individual plants in a landscape containing a mix of plant species.
Although it is difficult to regulate pressure on steep slopes, pressure compensating emitters are available, so the field does not have to be level.
High-tech solutions involve precisely calibrated emitters located along lines of tubing that extend from a computerized set of valves. Irrigating cystoclysis sprinkler In sprinkler or overhead irrigation, water is piped to one or more central locations within the field and distributed by overhead high-pressure sprinklers or guns.
A system using sprinklers, sprays, or guns mounted overhead on permanently installed risers Irrigating cystoclysis often referred to as a solid-set irrigation system. Higher pressure sprinklers that rotate are called rotors and are driven by a ball drive, gear drive, or impact mechanism.
Rotors can be designed to rotate in a full or partial circle. Guns are used not only for irrigation, but also for industrial applications such as dust suppression and logging.
Sprinklers can also be mounted on moving platforms connected to the water source by a hose. Automatically moving wheeled systems known as traveling sprinklers may irrigate areas such as small farms, sports fields, parks, pastures, and cemeteries unattended.
Most of these use a length of polyethylene tubing wound on a steel drum. As the tubing is wound on the drum powered by the irrigation water or a small gas engine, the sprinkler is pulled across the field.
When the sprinkler arrives back at the reel the system shuts off. This type of system is known to most people as a "waterreel" traveling irrigation sprinkler and they are used extensively for dust suppression, irrigation, and land application of waste water.
Other travelers use a flat rubber hose that is dragged along behind while the sprinkler platform is pulled by a cable. A small center pivot system from beginning to end Rotator style pivot applicator sprinkler Center pivot with drop sprinklers Wheel line irrigation system in IdahoCenter pivot irrigation Center pivot irrigation is a form of sprinkler irrigation utilising several segments of pipe usually galvanized steel or aluminium joined together and supported by trussesmounted on wheeled towers with sprinklers positioned along its length.
These systems are found and used in all parts of the world and allow irrigation of all types of terrain. Newer systems have drop sprinkler heads as shown in the image that follows. As of [update] most center pivot systems have drops hanging from a U-shaped pipe attached at the top of the pipe with sprinkler heads that are positioned a few feet at most above the crop, thus limiting evaporative losses.
Drops can also be used with drag hoses or bubblers that deposit the water directly on the ground between crops. Crops are often planted in a circle to conform to the center pivot. Originally, most center pivots were water-powered.
Many modern pivots feature GPS devices. Water is supplied at one end using a large hose. After sufficient irrigation has been applied to one strip of the field, the hose is removed, the water drained from the system, and the assembly rolled either by hand or with a purpose-built mechanism, so that the sprinklers are moved to a different position across the field.
The hose is reconnected. The process is repeated in a pattern until the whole field has been irrigated. This system is less expensive to install than a center pivot, but much more labor-intensive to operate — it does not travel automatically across the field: The pipe doubles both as water transport and as an axle for rotating all the wheels.
A drive system often found near the centre of the wheel line rotates the clamped-together pipe sections as a single axle, rolling the whole wheel line. Manual adjustment of individual wheel positions may be necessary if the system becomes misaligned.
Wheel line systems are limited in the amount of water they can carry, and limited in the height of crops that can be irrigated. One useful feature of a lateral move system is that it consists of sections that can be easily disconnected, adapting to field shape as the line is moved.
They are most often used for small, rectilinear, or oddly-shaped fields, hilly or mountainous regions, or in regions where labor is inexpensive.Complications Renal Failure BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY enlarged prostate from NURSING at Chamberlain College of Nursing.
Irrigating Cystoclysis by Jessa Cultura Definition CYSTOCLYSIS-“continuous bladder irrigation” or CBI - A type of irrigation wherein saline solution is introduced into the bladder to prevent or treat clot formation.
Utok "Nar^es" is the extended blog of BRAVEZ ET FORT batch aiming to refresh the knowledge and skills not only for our batch but also for all student and professional nurses locally and globally. The purpose of continuous bladder irrigation is to keep the drainage tube open and flowing by continuously washing out sediment, urine, and blood clots from the bladder that might otherwise restrict urine flow, or it can be used to administer medications directly into the bladder.
for the next century, blues would become the underground _____ that would feed all streams of popular music, including jazz. mary has a sense of meaning and direction in her life and a relationship to a higher being.
she has a high level of _____ wellness. • to irrigate bladder with a medication to treat an infection or local bladder irritation why is it cystoclysis is indicated for post genito-urinary surgery, urinary tract infection and also in prostatic hematuria?.