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Ralph Waldo Ellison — Draft page of Invisible Man. Later that year, Rustin traveled to West Africa under the auspices of the American Friends Service Community and Fellowship of Reconciliation to assist African leaders Kwame Nkrumah and Nnamdi Azikiwe with organizing nonviolent campaigns against colonialism.

Civil rights 1945 55

For Civil rights 1945 55 information, read Michigan Publishing's access and usage policy. Politicians in their speeches, writings, and actions must, as Kansas Senator Nancy Kassebaum recently stated, "strike the proper balance between a naive idealism and a craven pragmatism.

But the highest calling of the expert—successful—politician is making compromise creative and not corruptive. It is proper that successful politicians have always wanted to be both popular and political.

Being popular is easier; it is accomplished by telling audiences what they want to hear—something that touches a responsive chord because it is consonant with their own personal experiences and beliefs. Being political is more difficult.

As we consider Lincoln, the successful leader and politician, dealing with the civil rights of Negroes, let us ask two questions. How much did he tell people what they wanted to hear, and how much did he give them a new sense of direction?

Did he strike a proper balance between idealism and pragmatism? I Civil rights 1945 55 he did. Arthur Zilversmit, in Lincoln on Black and White: A Documentary History, pulled together many of the documents one needs to answer the question of Lincoln's views on race.

In that volume and in his recent paper "Lincoln and the Problem of Race," he set an appropriate tone on the issue of race, but I want to focus in particular on Lincoln's actions and words on civil rights for the Negro.

As I do, I am reminded that the distinguished scholar James Randall, looking at constitutional aspects of Lincoln's policies, explained that much of the constitutional reasoning of those days was mere rationalizing.

Now, as any politician or lawyer can tell you, much of the legal argument of leaders at any time is not "mere," but "pure," rationalizing, and in order to understand the rationalizing, one must determine the case a politician or lawyer is trying to make and not linger overmuch on the language of the arguments.

Like Randall, I believe it is more insightful to ask how Lincoln's approach to the Civil War shaped our constitutional understanding than to ask how the Constitution limited policy alternatives available to Lincoln. Whatever arguments evolved became accretions and part of the constitutional wisdom to be passed along.

The real task, then, is not choosing between believing that politicians meant what they said about the Constitution and ignoring what they said, but analyzing both what they said and what they did in order to come up with interpretations of both. That is what we must do in considering Lincoln and the issue of civil rights for the Negro.

What seems remarkable to me is that some constitutional historians—constitutional history is, after all, the history of public law—would not understand that point. When dealing with the public utterances, successful politicians can be counted on to be reflecting or molding public opinion.

Be careful if a politician tells you in a speech that the reason he will not do something or other is because it is unconstitutional. For example, if an administration official tells you he cannot support tuition tax credits for parents whose children go to private schools and that he even has an opinion of the Attorney General that tells him tax credits would violate the constitutional wall of separation between church and state, be suspicious.

Remember that opinions of the Attorney General do not have the force of law, and that the Attorney General and the administration official are political appointees of a President whose policy is against tuition tax credits. Ask the administration official why he does not want them, and he may in confidence give you a plethora of reasons, but mostly that he thinks tax credits are too expensive and prefers to spend the money on public education.

All you really know from his public statements is that he does not want tuition tax credits. Only if he tells you in the privacy of his living room or in a private letter, for example, and only if he has no reason to want to persuade you that he does not believe by any stretch of constitutional interpretation that he can justify tax credits, do you have reason to believe that he really feels hemmed in by the Constitution.

Any successful politician is smart enough to know that he or she can gain more support by arguing the unconstitutionality of a policy to a group with an opposing view than by simply telling them that what they want is too expensive.

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Only unsuccessful politicians fail to understand that necessity; but they do not last too long, anyway. That is not to say that politicians lack personal principles, preferences, or constitutional beliefs. Most do have them. Successful politicians are neither naive idealists nor craven pragmatists.

Federal soldiers in a gunboat wait to escort the freedmen to safety behind Union lines.

Civil rights 1945 55

What did he do and why, and how did he add to our constitutional and political wisdom? What he said is well known to scholars and Lincoln buffs. Free them, and make them politically and socially, our equals?This is a timeline of the civil rights movement, a nonviolent freedom movement to gain legal equality and the enforcement of constitutional rights for African Americans.

The goals of the movement included securing equal protection under the law, ending legally established racial discrimination, and gaining equal access to public facilities, education reform, fair housing, and the ability to vote.

The Civil Rights Act of created a new Commission on Civil Rights to investigate civil rights violations and expanded a small Civil Rights Section into its own Civil Rights Division in the Department of Justice headed by an assistant attorney general. Building a Latino Civil Rights Movement: Puerto Ricans, African Americans, and the Pursuit of Racial Justice in New York City (Justice, Power, and Politics) [Sonia Song-Ha Lee] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.

In the first book-length history of Puerto Rican civil rights in New York City, Sonia Lee traces the rise and fall of an uneasy coalition between Puerto Rican and.

the Civil Rights Act of and the Voting Rights Act of also required executive and judicial enforcement ðwhich was not always forthcomingÞ, but no one thinks that these acts are insignificant policy changes as a result. In the s, the expansion of civil rights legislation did not extend to gays.

Frank Kameny, fired from a civilian army job in for being homosexual, became one of the earliest gay rights . The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) in the United States was a decades-long movement with the goal of enforcing constitutional and legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already enjoyed.

With roots starting in the Reconstruction era during the late 19th century, the movement.

BBC Bitesize - National 5 History - Civil rights campaigns - Revision 1