An analysis of behavioral and social learning theories about criminals

His or her behavior is under his or her complete control.

An analysis of behavioral and social learning theories about criminals

Empirical research testing the utility of social learning theory for explaining variation in crime or deviance is then reviewed; this is followed by a discussion of recent macrolevel applications of the theory i. The research paper concludes with a brief offering of suggestions for future research and a summary of the importance of social learning theory as a general theory in the criminological literature.

I. Introduction

Criminal behavior is learned. Criminal behavior is learned in interaction with other persons in a process of communication. The principal part of the learning of criminal behavior occurs within intimate personal groups.

When criminal behavior is learned, the learning includes a techniques of committing the crime, which are sometimes very complicated, sometimes very simple, and b the specific direction of motives, drives, rationalizations, and attitudes.

The specific direction of motives and drives is learned from definitions of the legal codes as favorable or unfavorable. A person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to violation of the law.

The process of learning criminal behavior by association with criminal and anti-criminal patterns involves all of the mechanisms that are involved in any other learning.

Although criminal behavior is an expression of general needs and values, it is not explained by those general needs and values, because noncriminal behavior is an expression of the same needs and values.

Differential association varies in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity. The most frequent, longest-running, earliest and closest influences will be most efficacious or determinant of learned behavior. According to Sutherland, an individual learns two types of definitions toward committing a particular behavior.

He can either learn favorable definitions from others that would likely increase the probability that he will commit the behavior, or he can learn unfavorable definitions that would likely decrease the probability that he would engage in a particular behavior. Stated in terms of criminal involvement, when an individual learns favorable definitions toward violations of the law in excess of the definitions unfavorable to violations of the law, that individual is more likely to commit the criminal act s.

Learning favorable versus unfavorable definitions can also be described as a process whereby individuals attempt to balance pro-criminal definitions against prosocial or conforming definitions. It is logical to assume that individuals learn favorable or pro-criminal definitions for committing crime from those involved in crime themselves i.

It should be remembered, however, that it is possible for law-abiding persons to expose individuals to pro-criminal attitudes and definitions, just as it is possible for an individual to learn conforming definitions from criminals see Cressey,p.

More specifically, if a person is exposed to pro-criminal definitions first priorityand these definitions increase in frequency and strength intensity and persist for some time durationthe individual is more likely to demonstrate involvement in criminal and deviant acts.

In response to these criticisms and the prior failure of differential association theorists in specifying the learning process of the theory, Burgess and Akers presented their reformulated version of the theory, that is, differential association-reinforcement theory.

Skinner, yet, more recently, Akers commented on how his theory is more closely aligned with cognitive learning theories such as those associated with Albert Banduraamong others. According to Burgess and Akers and, later, Akers, the specific mechanisms by which the learning process takes place are primarily through operant conditioning or differential reinforcement.

Stated more clearly, operant behavior, or voluntary actions taken by an individual, are affected by a system of rewards and punishments. Burgess and Akers originally considered the imitation element of the behavioral learning process or modeling to be subsumed under the broad umbrella of operant conditioning; that is, imitation was itself seen as simply one kind of behavior that could be shaped through successive approximations and not a separate behavioral mechanism.

However, Akers later began to accept the uniqueness of the learning mechanism of imitation from operant or instrumental learning and to discuss it in terms of observational learning or vicarious reinforcement. Burgess and Akers also recognized the importance of additional behavioral components and principles of learning theory, such as classical conditioning, discriminative stimuli, schedules of reinforcement, and other mechanisms.

Considering the brief overview of social learning theory as described earlier, the central assumption and proposition of social learning theory can be best summarized in the two following statements: The basic assumption in social learning theory is that the same learning process in a context of social structure, interaction, and situation, produces both conforming and deviant behavior.

The difference lies in the direction.learning theory and the quality of parent-child relationships from the perspective of behavioral analysis, teach beliefs favorable to crime are more likely to associate with other criminals and less likely to original social learning framework was designed to account for those additional environmental.

Behavioral theories are based on contiguity, classical and operant conditioning, applied behavior analysis, social learning theory and self-regulation/cognitive behavior modification. Early views of learning were contiguity and classical conditioning.

An analysis of behavioral and social learning theories about criminals

For instance, in most cognitive behavioral therapy programs, offenders improve their social skills, means-ends problem solving, critical reasoning, moral reasoning, cognitive style, self-control, impulse management and self-efficacy. Criminal Behavior Analysis Education and Training Programs.

Criminal behavior analysis combines the study of the psychology and motivations of violent criminals.

An analysis of behavioral and social learning theories about criminals

Delinquency is made up of many theories, but the primary hypothesis that it consists of is the social learning theory. The social learning theory consists of teaching right acts instead of delinquent acts since the person is a child.

J.K. Kruschke, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, ‘Mathematical learning theory ’ usually refers to mathematical formalizations of theories for simple ‘associative learning’ situations such as conditioning, discrimination learning, concept learning, category learning, paired-associate learning, or list learning.

Criminal Behavior Theories (Forensic Psychology) - iResearchNet