Literature courses are all about two things:
Close Chaucer, the Mother of English Poetry? Three centuries earlier in The Regiment of Princes the poet and bureaucrat Thomas Hoccleve offered the first recorded reference to Chaucer as literary father.
This paternal image defines the literary canon and literary production more broadly as a patrilineal line of descent whose authority is founded on a patriarchal figure from whom later writers sons-disciples such as Hoccleve derive validation.
This patriarchal, men-to-men, paradigm has been pervasive in critical approaches to literature, so much so that in in The Anxiety of Influence Harold Bloom still conceptualised literary history in genealogical terms as a fraught father-son relationship.
The use of this literary devices is seen in the poem when the author writes using letters letters r, d, and f. He uses these letters and others to create a kind of easy flow throughout his poem, almost making it sound like a song. This article is about two English writers Geoffrey Chaucer and William Shakespeare. A Comparison of Chaucer's Verse Forms and Metrical Practices with Those of his French Contemporaries—Machaut, Deschamps, and Froissart - Margaret McMurry Chaucer and the Medieval Sciences - Joshua A. Goldman.
Whan that Aprill with his shoures soote When April with its sweet-smelling showers The droghte of March hath perced to the roote, Has pierced the drought of March to the root, And bathed every veyne in swich licour And bathed every vein of the plants in such liquid Of which vertu engendred is the flour; By which power the flower is created I.
Later in the passage references to Zephirus and the Ram Aries augment the male dominance in acts of creation.
Although, as Dinshaw concedes, in the creative act the feminine is not entirely obliterated, it is however co-opted by the ubiquitous presence of the patriarch.
Are women, therefore, irrelevant, or at best marginal, in the processes of literary production? Are they simply texts to be written, or blank envelopes to be filled with meaning, as the French feminist Luce Irigaray would put it, rather than creative agents?
Images of flourishing and fertility characterise his generative agency, as his prolific literary production is sanctioned by the Virgin, the Mother of Christ and ultimate vehicle of the Incarnation.
Hoccleve is not the only fifteenth-century poet whose praise of Father Chaucer is founded on a rhetoric of nourishing and flourishing, traditionally associated with femininity and maternity in particular.
Figures of birth and ripening cast his paternal authority as semi-divine, a God-like patriarch responsible for nourishing the infant English vernacular tradition.
Venus, the goddess of love, praises Chaucer for his abundant literary production and, most importantly, addresses him as her disciple. Nonetheless, a maternal line of descent replaces patrilinearity: Even if patrilinearity is the ultimate goal, its entanglement with femininity scrambles its monolithic masculinity.
Chaucer and his fifteenth-century readers both men and women may even have recognised echoes a theology of greening and flourishing put forward in the writings of influential female mystics such as Hildegard of Bingen d. In a reflection on Christian theology more broadly, Grace M.
Jantzen juxtaposes the masculinist necrophilic bias of Christianity, based on death and the fundamental sinfulness of humankind, to a theology of the feminine predicted instead on flourishing.
Through the touch of his hand, Chaucer reaches towards Hoccleve and his fifteenth-century audience, but also to a potentially infinite number of readers dispersed in multiple futurities. The manuscript page becomes therefore a generative space which is not closed down by a restrictive heterosexual narrative founded on an exclusive Father-son relation, but instead it opens up to a flourishing of temporalities pasts, presents, and futures and gender identities the maternal fatherhood of Chaucer inhabiting the same space.
The touch of his finger implicates us as readers and prompts us to acts of destabilisation of the canon. Appropriated because of their generative power, natural images of birth, fertility, and nourishing traditionally associated with femininity, become inextricably entangled in the very construction of the masculine literary power of Father Chaucer and the English canon over which he presides.
Women do not just occupy the margins of medieval literary culture, but they can be found at the very heart of it. Despite dominant male-centred configurations of authority, medieval culture is a dialectic space in which boundaries between masculine and feminine are dislodged into complex, queer entanglements.Lauren Ipsum's answer is correct, as far as the meaning in the play itself goes, but it's also worth noting that Shakespeare's portrayal of Theseus and Hippolyta was based on a much older story.
There are many variations of this story in different retellings of Greek mythology. On Literary Influence: How Austen and Shakespeare Affect Rowling — and Vice Versa. March 12, To understand how that works we have to review how Ms. Rowling was influenced by the authors she enjoyed.
didn’t follow Ms.
Rowling up on the Shakespeare reference or the theme of choice and destiny. Transcript of Style in Shakespeare and Chaucer: The Evolution of English Shakespeare's Use of Figurative Language Shakespeare uses figurative language to expand his characters and compare them and their actions to natural events.
Essay on The Pardoner's Tale of Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales Words | 6 Pages.
The Pardoner's Tale of Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales is a structured novel which starts with the narrator obtaining twenty traveling companions at an inn. They are all traveling to Canterbury to pay homage to a saint.
A Comparison of Chaucer's Verse Forms and Metrical Practices with Those of his French Contemporaries—Machaut, Deschamps, and Froissart - Margaret McMurry Chaucer and the Medieval Sciences - Joshua A.
Goldman. Samuel Johnson (–), often referred to as Dr Johnson, was an English author who made lasting contributions to English literature as a poet, essayist, moralist, literary critic, biographer, editor and .